Fundamentals of Wireless Communications

Course Overview:

The course aims at providing comprehensive knowledge about problems and design approaches in wireless communication systems. Wireless communications is one of the most active areas of technology development of our time and in this broad seminar modern telecommunications technologies are unfolded and illustrated.
The course covers a wide range of wireless communication aspects starting with the theory parts of wave propagation and dives into the modern methods and techniques of signal processing as well as digital communication systems architecture and building blocks.
The closing part of the course demonstrates the implementation of the different methods and techniques by reviewing modern cellular and WiFi networks


Who should attend:

Technical and nontechnical professionals looking for a clear understanding of the modern wireless communications technologies
Computer professionals wishing to be brought up to par on the technical aspects of Telecom
All those wishing for sound background for planning and implementing wireless communication systems


Course Outline:
1. Introduction to communication systems
• Communication systems Facts and Terminology
• Communication systems  basic characteristics
- Link types - such as wireless/wireline, Fixed/Mobile, P2P, Network, more…
- Link performance such as Bandwidth, Throughput, Delay, Power, Range, more…
• Wireless/Wireline Transport
- Wireline Transport (e.g. Copper, Fiber, Cable)
- Wireless Transport (e.g.  RF, Microwave)
• Communication systems general Architecture

2. Wireless Communications
• The wireless media challenges
• Wireless networks review
• Spectrum allocation

3. Wave Propagation
• Electromagnetic Wave Characteristics (Amplitude, Wavelength, Frequency, Period)
• Radio Waves propagation
- Reflection, Diffraction, Scattering, Refraction
- Types of propagation – Ground/Sky/Space Waves
• The Wireless Environment
- Signal Measurement -  the dB and dBm units
- Fading
- Doppler Shift
- Multipath
- Signal and Noise
- Noise types
- Noise Figure
- SNR
• Radio Wave Propagation Models
- Free Space propagation model
- Small/Large scale propagation models
- Fast Fading Models (Rayleigh, Rician)

4. Digital Communications Systems
• Introduction to Digital Communications
- Digital system resources
- General system block diagram
• Signal Processing
- Sampling and Quantization
- Nyquist Theorem
- Time Domain / Frequency Domain
- Fourier Transform
- Interpolation / Decimation
• Coding and Error Correction
- Information Theory
- Shannon  Channel Capacity Theorem
-  Entropy
- Source Encoding
- Channel Encoding
- Convolutional Coding and  Viterbi Decoding
- Turbo coding
- CRC
- Interleaving / De-Interleaving
- ARQ , HARQ  Methods
- BER and BLER probability
• Modulation
- Digital / Analog Modulation
- Simple Analog modulations -  AM / FM
- Digital Modulation Methods
- ASK – Amplitude Shift Keying
- FSK – Frequency Shift Keying
- PSK – Phase Shift Keying
- QAM - Quadrature Amplitude Modulation (QAM16/64/256)
- Comparison  of Digital Modulation Techniques
- Inter Symbol Interference (ISI)
• Diversity Methods
- Diversity Principles
- Diversity Techniques – Time, Frequency, Spatial, Polarization
- Combining Techniques - Selective Combining, MRC, Equal Gain, Threshold
• Spread Spectrum
- Spread Spectrum Principles
- FHSS – Frequency Hopping Spread Spectrum
- DSSS – Direct Sequence Spread Spectrum
• Multiplexing and Multi-Access Methods
- Multiplexing Methods – FDM, TDM, STDM, CDM
- Multi-Access Methods
- Motivation - Near-Far problem, hidden and exposed terminals
- Channel Partitioning:   TDMA, FDMA, CDMA, OFDMA
- Random Access:       ALOHA, CSMA, CSMA/CD, CSMA/CA

5. Transmitting / Receiving systems
• Transmitter / Receiver general Architecture
• Basic Circuits (e.g. LNA, Duplexer, Mixer, etc.)
• Transmitter
- Transmitter Architecture
- Operation principles
- Performance Measurements (Power in band, Phase Noise)
• Receiver
- Super-heterodyne  Receivers
- Receiver Matching and Selectivity
• Antennas
- Antenna Types such as Dipole, Monopole, Directional, more…
- Antenna Patterns
- Performance - Gain, Directivity, Radiation Efficiency

6. Time Management and Synchronization
• Timing Sources
• Clock drift and clock skew
• Oscillators
- Different types of oscillators
- PLL - Phase Locked Loop
- Phase Noise
• Time Synchronization
- Clock and frequency recovery

7. Smart Antennas and MIMO (Multiple Input multiple output)
• Multiple Antennas Techniques - SISO, MISO, SIMO, MIMO
• Spatial Multiplexing and Diversity methods
• SDMA and  Beamforming
• Closed loop and open loop Transmission
• adaptive MIMO

8. Measurements and planning
• Signal strength measurements (e.g. RSSI  , RSRP)
• Signal to noise measurements (e.g. Eb/No , Ec/No)
• Measured to target error rates – BER/MER
• Link Budget considerations
• Capacity and coverage considerations

9. Wireless Networks
• WiFi
- General Architecture
- Radio  - Physical and MAC layers
• Cellular Technologies – GSM / WCDMA / LTE
- Cellular network principles
- Architecture
- Radio Technologies (2G to 4G)
- Radio Interface – The Physical Layer
- MAC
- Network Services
- Network Procedures
- Mobility management

10. Summary
 

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